A biography of pope benedict xv
Pope benedict ix
Tens of thousands of such prisoners were exchanged through his intervention. During the First World War, in fact, there was only one national embassy in Rome. Pius IX, who had promoted a culture of peace. He did eventually succeed in reestablishing diplomatic relations with France and Great Britain, but his hope of reaching concordats with the new states set up by the Treaty of Versailles was not fulfilled until the reign of his successor, Pius XI. Copyright The Gale Group, Inc. Benedict's influence was greater within Italy. In addition, the traditional social and cultural European order was threatened by right-wing nationalism and fascism as well as left-wing socialism and communism, all of which potentially threatened the existence and freedom of the Church. Ratti was on several occasions in imminent physical danger. In Protestant circles of Germany, the notion was popular that the Catholic Pope was neutral on paper only, strongly favoring the allies instead. For the moment it was at least a step forward that the whole political sphere in Italy was no longer taboo. Unusually small of stature, myopic and ailing in appearance, with distinguished manners but matter-of-fact and precise, without much geniality or charm, this pope never attained to the same degree of popularity among the faithful as did his predecessor and his three successors. Joan was canonized by Pope Benedict XV in When circulating his peace proposals in , the pope had referred Victor Emmanuel III and this was the first formal recognition of the monarchy given by the Vatican. A native of Genoa, an aristocrat, with a lawyer's training, he had had curial and diplomatic experience, being secretary at one time to Cardinal Rampolla.
The war and its consequences were Benedict's main focus during the early years of his pontificate. Together with his diplomatic action, Benedict XV carried forward a huge humanitarian effort during the war.
In he was promoted to be Archbishop of Milan where he was at Benedict's death on 22 January, So the cardinals picked on one who would stand apart.
Cardinal Gasparri believed that the peace conditions and the humiliation of the Germans would likely result in another war as soon as Germany would be militarily in a position to start one. Almost a third of it concerned missing persons. The bitter problems of action francaise he left to his successor.
Pope benedict xv cause of death
Benedict's policy was also influenced by his desire to prevent Catholic nations from fighting each other. Benedict XV was crowned in the Sistine Chapel on 6 September , and, also as a form of protest due to the Roman Question, there was no ceremony for the formal possession of the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran. Bulgaria and Austria-Hungary were also favorable, but Germany replied ambiguously. A similar example of Benedict's perception is his selecting Eugenio Pacelli to organize the prisoner-of-war work at the Vatican, and subsequently sending him as nuncio to Munich. After 4 years in Spain he was recalled in to the Vatican Secretariat of State. Benedict XV attempted to improve relations with the anti-clerical Republican government of France. In Protestant circles of Germany, the notion was popular that the Catholic Pope was neutral on paper only, strongly favoring the allies instead. He undertook the greatest efforts trying to help the victims of the Russian famine with millions in relief.
Much that they achieved was initiated by him. Some 40, people had asked for help in the repatriation of sick POWs and 50, letters were sent from families to their loved ones who were POWs.
Pope pius xi
Much that they achieved was initiated by him. In he was made archbishop of Bologna, in May he became a cardinal, and on September 3 of that year he was elected pope. The Pope himself sent a personal letter to the Sultan, who was also Caliph of Islam. On Aug. Benedict XV strongly supported a solution and seemed to have had a fairly pragmatic view of the political and social situation in Italy at this time. Before Christmas he tried to persuade the belligerents to revive the Truce of God for the feast day. He himself was at one time suspected of heresy by the anti-Modernist extremists and he now discouraged the intransigence of the attitude known as "integralism". Achilles Ratti from the position of prefect of the Vatican Library in , and sent him as his personal representative to Poland. It is precisely in this field that the eternal salvation of souls is imperiled". By the end of the war, some , items of correspondence were processed by the Vatican.
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