Historically, to the Manchus, the policy was both an act of submission and, in practical terms, an identification aid to tell friend from foe. The image of Chinese workers hanging from baskets to do such hazardous work has been powerful, and the depiction of workers in baskets along cliffs has appeared in many graphic images and literary representations, as well as in histories.
What is the controversy over whether Chinese workers were lowered in baskets to place explosive charges at Cape Horn? Many more were imported from China.
Given that the Chinese were ineligible for citizenship at that time and constituted the largest percentage of the non-white population, the taxes were primarily aimed at them and tax revenue was therefore generated almost exclusively by the Chinese.
Without them it would be impossible to complete the western portion of this great national enterprise, within the time required by the Acts of Congress. So the Central Pacific arranged with labor contractors to bring workers directly from China, he said.
Researchers in China also point out that the laborers from Guangdong would have much experience working at great heights for building roads and structures along the Yangtze River, as well as climbing tall trees to gather delicacies for cooking.
Bywomen made up only two percent of the Chinese population in the United States, and even by this had only increased to 4.
This network caused the wagon trains of previous decades to become obsolete, exchanging it for a modern transportation system.