Effects of olfaction and pheromones
Limbic connections of the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex in macaque monkeys.
The latter may imply that non-olfactory and atypical vomeronasal sensory decoding may occur in the OL and, furthermore, that it is involved in the plasticity and learning of socially transmitted information, as has been shown recently Nicol et al.
The accessory olfactory epithelium actually sends projections to a accessory olfactory bulb. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Female pheromones effect on males
In contrast, a primer pheromone has a slower onset and a longer duration. The glomerular neuropil gathers apical dendrites of mitral MCs and tufted TCs neurons, SCs axons, and processes of periglomerular and short-axon neurons. Neuron 49, — Now, we can think of pheromones as specialized olfactory cues. Further, this associative learning regulates behavior, that is, when animals have learned associations between an odor CS and a negative outcome such as foot shock unconditioned stimulus US , they try to avoid the CS associated with the negative US, or show fear expressions such as freezing Sullivan et al. When that receptor is activated, it causes this cell to de-polarize and fire [unintelligible]. The implication is that the aPC enables complex mixtures to be represented separately from their components and from each other, while the pPC may enable generalization to similar odors. Similarly, rose essential oil inhibits stress-induced skin-barrier disruption and elevation of salivary cortisol in humans Fukada et al. Social cognition: feeling voices to recognize emotions.
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. This neurophysiological adaptation may be useful in drawing attention to harmful chemicals in adapted background odor environments.
Among eukaryotic microorganisms, pheromones promote sexual interaction in numerous species. Curr Biol. Conclusions Human and complementary studies in non-human animals provide evidence that odors evoke emotion and autonomic state via pathways to the amygdala and OFC, and become incorporated into episodic memory via the hippocampus.
based on 44 review