Marxism in literature
When combined with a dose of Nietzsche, this way of thinking about art will have a profound effect on so called "Post Modern" critical theories. Walter BenjaminTheodor Adorno and Herbert Marcuse were some of the important figures attached with this school.
Bertolt Brecht, a close friend of Benjamin, developed the concept of Epic Theatre which dismantled the traditional naturalistic theatre and produced a new kind of theatre altering the functional relations between stage and audience, text and producer, and producer and actor. The foundation or the base stands for the socio-economic relations and the mode of production and the superstructure stands for art, law, politics, religion and, above all, ideology.
But in the final analysis his stories reveal the filtering of the bourgeois modernity in Kerala society and how it enters into a conflictual relationship with the values of feudalism. Many others belonging to the same perspective went into exile and continued their work abroad.
It may be a paradox that while Marxist practices have received set backs in recent years Marxist theory has been widely accepted all over the world. Richard WrightClaude McKayJean-Paul SartreSimone de Beauvoirand Bertold Brecht were deeply influenced by Marxist and socialist theories of the day, and much of this type of reflection is evident in their writings of the time.
Why was marxism considered a solution
It is essentially a symbolic concept which employed the structure of a building to explain this relationship. Take the case of the novels of Mulk Raj Anand which address the life of the untouchables, coolies and ordinary workers struggling for their rights and self esteem. Althusser imported structuralism to Marxism. Earlier under feudalism the workers engaged in cottage industries produced various items on their own, all activities related to the production happening at the same place under the supervision of the same people. His writings on politics, culture, the mass media and literature are a significant contribution to the Marxist critique of culture and the arts. The documentary Hip-hop: Beyond Beats and Rhymes takes this approach, as well, but in this case examining how minority cultures are encouraged to proliferate images or representations of themselves that will inevitably empower those who hope to oppress them. His tightly written Marxism and Literature is mainly for specialists, but it also sets out his own approach to cultural studies which he called cultural materialism. For example, under this model, a Marxist reading of Wordsworth's Romanticism as an means through which the urban, middle to upper class English elite attempted to maintain hegemony over the rural, agricultural peasant class; that is, "pastoralism" really masks nothing more than the modern aristocracy or emerging urban middle class keeping control over the peasant class, as it had always done.
Morality, religion, art and philosophy are seen as echoes of real life processes.
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